In the last few decades, advances in the field of research, technology, and healthcare and educational strategies have radically improved the quality of healthcare. However, a well-defined and standardized model for the management of diseases from a nursing perspective is still missing. For example, heart failure in adults (Bocchi 2013) and bronchiolitis in children (Hall, 2009) have a significant impact on healthcare, but there are no agreed standardised procedures with regard to how they should be cared for by nurses (Bialy, 2011). Nursing knowledge about these pathologies varies greatly and it is often based on direct clinical experience rather than on specially designed educational courses (Albert, 2002).
The role played by nurses is fundamental, especially in relation to patient and family education (WHO, 2015). The nature of nurses’ preparation in relation to this latter aspect varies a great deal across Europe.